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社会比较和社会评价的背景效应:来自联合评估视角的启示

Contextual effect of social comparison and social evaluation: Insights from the perspective of joint evaluation

Submit Time: 2022-11-24
Author: 何婷婷 1 ; 王一漫 1 ; 陈文锋 1 ;
Institute: 1.中国人民大学心理学系;

Abstracts

[目的] 基于联合评估这一新视角对背景效应进行解释和拓展

[方法]决策领域存在一个经典的联合评估的偏好反转现象(又称评估模式效应), 其解释力最强的广义可评估性理论(GET)强调了评估模式(即背景信息是否存在)的作用。社会认知领域也存在社会比较和社会评价的背景效应, 其著名的包含排除模型(IEM)也强调背景信息的作用, 尤其是目标-背景相似性的作用。背景效应可以类比于评估模式效应, 也可以理解为一种“偏好”(上行同化和下行对比)及其“反转”(上行对比和下行同化)现象。

[结果]可以基于联合评估这一新的视角对背景效应进行的解释和拓展。

[局限] 基于联合评估的偏好反转现象与社会评价和社会比较的背景效应之间也存在不一致,两者影响因素可能存在差别。

[结论]未来研究应该关注背景效应的测量标准、影响因素之间的交互作用、跨维度作用及其实践应用等方面, 以促进对背景效应的深化理解和两个领域的理论融合和实践结合。

[英文摘要][Objective] Explain and extend contextual effect from the new perspective of joint evaluation.

[Methods] Preference reversal of joint evaluation is well known in the field of decision-making. The Generalized Evaluability Theory (GET), as a theory for preference reversal with the strongest explanatory power, emphasizes the role of the mode of evaluation (i.e., the presence or absence of contextual information) in the decision-making process. The theoretical models for the contextual effect of social comparison and social evaluation, e.g., the Inclusion/Exclusion Model (IEM), also emphasizes the role of contextual information (especially the similarity between context and target) in the evaluation process. Analogous to preference reversal, the contextual effect can also be explained as a kind of "decision preference" (upward assimilation and downward contrast) and its "reversal" (upward contrast and downward assimilation). Analogous to preference reversal, the contextual effect can also be explained as a kind of "decision preference" (upward assimilation and downward contrast) and its "reversal" (upward contrast and downward assimilation).

[Results] Based on the analogy between contextual effect and preference reversal, the contextual effect was explained and extended from the new perspective of joint evaluation.

[Limitations] Based on the differences between contextual effect and preference reversal,their influencing facors may be different

[Conclusions] Future research should concern how to measure the contextual effect, and several prospective directions were proposed, e.g. interaction of contextual factors and evaluated taget, cross-dimensional contextual effects, interaction of contextual factors and evaluator, and practical applications of contextual effects. It is expected to promote a deeper understanding of the contextual effect and the theoretical integration and practical implications of these two fields.

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From: 王一漫
Journal:心理科学进展
Recommended references: 何婷婷,王一漫,陈文锋.(2022).社会比较和社会评价的背景效应:来自联合评估视角的启示.心理科学进展.doi:10.12074/202211.00304V1 (Click&Copy)
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[V1] 2022-11-24 07:59:04 chinaXiv:202211.00304V1 Download
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