The transition of latent classes of children’s learning engagement in primary school against the background of the “double reduction” policy and its influencing factors
摘要: 采用潜在转变分析考察双减背景下小学生学习投入的转变类别及其影响因素。研究以347名小学生为被试, 对其双减实施前后的学习投入水平、父母积极教养方式、师生关系和同伴关系进行了纵向追踪。结果表明: (1)小学生学习投入存在低学习投入组、中等学习投入组、高专注低活力组和高学习投入组四种不同类别; (2)双减政策实施后, 中等学习投入组和高学习投入组稳定性较强, 低学习投入组更易向中等学习投入组转变, 在政策实施半年后, 高专注低活力组学生更易向中等学习投入组转变, 政策实施一年后, 该组学生保持在高专注低活力组的概率较高; (3)父母积极教养方式、师生关系及同伴关系对双减政策前后小学生学习投入类别转变的预测作用存在差异。本研究不仅有助于深入理解小学生学习投入的发展变化及影响因素, 还为双减政策的实施效果提供了实证证据。
Abstract: Learning engagement, an important indicator of the learning process, has garnered extensive attention. Developmental contextualism and the integrative model of engagement posit that the interaction between individuals and environmental factors results in heterogeneous learning engagement development among individuals. Previous studies have demonstrated learning engagement heterogeneity among primary school students. However, in the context of the double reduction policy, the dynamic development of childrens learning engagement remains unclear. Moreover, positive parenting style, teacher-student relationships, and peer relationships, as important environmental factors, may predict childrens learning engagement transitions. Thus, this study adopts a people-centered research method to address these issues from a longitudinal perspective.This study recruited participants from three ordinary public primary schools in Shandong Province, China. Participants at T1 (June 2021, before the implementation of the double reduction policy) were 378 children (164 boys; mean age: 9.97 0.91 years old). Participants at T2 (December 2021, six months after the implementation of the policy) were 357 primary school students (155 boys; mean age: 10.50 0.94 years old). Participants at T3 (June 2022, a year after the implementation of the policy) were 347 primary school students (147 boys; mean age:10.97 0.91 years old). Students completed the Childrens Learning Engagement Scale (at T1, T2, and T3), Shortform Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (at T1 and T2), Student Teacher Relationship Scale (at T1 and T2) and Childrens Peer Relationship Scales (at T1 and T2) during the three measurements. Latent profile analysis and latent transition analysis were employed in this study to explore childrens potential learning engagement subtypes and examine transitions between different subtypes across the three waves. Multiple logistic regressions were also used to investigate the impact of various environmental factors (i.e., positive parenting style, studentteacher relationships, and peer relationships) on the latent transitions of different learning engagement subtypes.All data were analyzed by SPSS 26.0 and Mplus 8.0. The results revealed four distinct subgroups of learning engagement among primary school students: the Low Engaged, Moderately Engaged, High Absorption with Vigorous Disengagement, and Highly Engaged groups. In addition, due to the double reduction policy, students in the Moderately Engaged and Highly Engaged groups displayed relative stability, while those in the Highly Disengaged group tended to transition toward the Moderately Engaged group. Regarding the High Absorption with Vigorous Disengagement group, the findings indicated a higher likelihood of transitioning to the Moderately Engaged group from T1 to T2; however, from T2 to T3, these students were more likely to remain in their original subgroup. Moreover, the study identified the varying roles of different environmental factors in childrens learning engagement subgroups. Specifically, under the double reduction policy, positive parenting style and teacherstudent relationships exhibited robust effects on childrens learning engagement transitions. The predictive effects of teacher-student relationships varied across different learning engagement subtypes among primary school students. Additionally, the study found that peer relationships had a positive influence on the transition of children within the Moderately Engaged group following the implementation of the double reduction policy.This study provides the first evidence of heterogeneity and dynamic changes in learning engagement among Chinese primary school students, which indicates that following the implementation of the double reduction policy, familyschoolcollaborative education has made initial progress. These findings not only enhance our understanding of the dynamic development of learning engagement among primary school students but also provide empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of the double reduction policy implementation.