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奖赏对工作记忆提取准确性的促进及其机制

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Reward Facilitates Working Memory Precision during Retrieval

摘要: 根据任务需要准确提取工作记忆表征对提高认知效率具有重要意义。但工作记忆提取准确性的调节因素及机制尚不清楚。本研究以关系人类生存和发展的价值因素为切入点,在工作记忆提取阶段呈现奖赏线索,分别采用单次提取(实验1)与连续提取任务(实验2)考察工作记忆提取过程的奖赏调节机制。考察工作记忆提取过程的奖赏调节机制。实验1和2分别采用单次提取和连续提取任务。本研究发现:(1)奖赏可以直接促进工作记忆提取准确性;(2)奖赏促进作用的机制是对工作记忆资源的再分配;(3)奖赏促进作用受提取顺序和个体工作记忆能力差异的影响。这些发现揭示了工作记忆提取阶段的奖赏调节机制,为促进认知效率提供了科学依据。
Abstract: Reward can improve working memory performance. However, there has been controversy on whether reward can regulate the retrieval of working memory. Some studies have presented reward signals before the retrieval stage, with the results showing that reward can affect the retrieval phase during working memory. Klink et al. (2017) indicated that reward cues presented in the retrieval phase cannot affect working memory. However, this finding lacks support in the literature and needs to be further tested. The present study aims to explore the mechanism and effect of reward on the precision of working memory during retrieval.
A total of 24 participants (experiment 1) and 60 participants (experiment 2) were recruited for two experiments. Experiment 1 included two stages: association learning and memory test. The participants first established the connection between color and value through association learning. Thereafter, a working memory test was conducted. Reward cues were presented with the memory probe during the working memory test. Experiment 2 included four stages: pretest, association learning, posttest, and confidence assessment. Pre- and post-test tasks were the same, in which the participants performed two memory tests in sequence during the retrieval phase. Colored cues were not related to rewards in the pre-test but associated with rewards in the post-test. Confidence judgment required the participants to evaluate their confidence that they can infer the color of the second cue based on the color of the first cue. This undertaking aimed to test whether the participants have expectations for the order of cues.
Results of experiment 1 showed that the effect of reward was significant in the memory test stage. In particular, memory performance with high and low reward cues was better than that with no reward cues. Results of the post-test of experiment 2 showed a significant main effect of test order. Memory performance of the first test item was particularly better than that of the second test item. Moreover, there was a significant test order by serial position of the high-reward cue interaction effect. Memory performance of the first test item was better when the high-reward cue appeared before the low-reward cue. Memory performance of the second test item was better when the low reward cue appeared before the high-reward cue. The participants’ working memory capacity was differentiated according to their performance during the pre-test to investigate the individual differences of the reward effects. Results likewise indicated that reward did not affect the memory performance of the high-capacity group. For the low-capacity group, memory performance was affected by the test order, serial position of the high-reward cue, and their interaction. Thus, the effect of reward was more evident with the low-capacity group.
The present study was the first to observe that rewards can directly regulate working memory retrieval without affecting encoding and retention. In addition, the regulation mechanism of reward on working memory retrieval involved the redistribution of working memory resources. Such a reward regulation was affected by the test order and working memory capacity. Moreover, findings indicated that individuals can adjust cognitive strategies before or during learning according to the item value to promote working memory processing. They can also adjust retrieval precision after learning according to the value of information set by the test. This flexible working memory regulation mechanism plays an important role in promoting human cognitive activities and social adaptation.
 

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[V1] 2023-11-24 15:23:41 ChinaXiv:202311.00251V1 下载全文
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  • 运营单位: 中国科学院文献情报中心
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