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1. chinaXiv:202202.00009 [pdf]

Standing up for close others: The relationship effect on moral courage across harm/care and fairness contexts

Michael Shengtao Wu; Gabriel Nudelman; Yongyuan Chen
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology
Subjects: Psychology >> Legality Psychology

Moral courage, standing up for others and intervening when a norm is violated, is viewed as a virtue in modern societies. However, it remains unclear how moral courage varies in interpersonal relationships and across moral contexts. Two studies were designed to test the effect of relationship type (close or distant) between the bystander and the victim on moral courage across harm/care and fairness contexts. The results showed that participants reported greater levels of moral courage when the victim was their family member or friend (vs. a stranger), and this relationship effect was stronger in the harm/care (vs. fairness) context. In addition, anger, a moral emotion, served a mediation role in the relationship effect on moral courage in both moral contexts. Taken together, the current findings demonstrate a relationship effect on the intentions of moral courage, especially in the harm/care context, suggesting that the relationship (between bystander and victim) and the context (harm/care vs. fairness) should be considered in understanding interventions against a norm violation.

submitted time 2022-02-06 Hits5047Downloads596 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201706.00761 [pdf]

神经科学偏见效应:可重复性及其心理机制的探索

殷继兴; 胡传鹏
Subjects: Psychology >> Legality Psychology
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

神经科学的发展对其他学科以及社会产生了重要的影响。虽然神经科学方法与行为研究方法都是探索人类心理与行为的有效手段并各有所长,但神经科学的研究结果却可能引起人们过度的解读和信任。研究者发现,当某一结论使用神经科学结果作为证据时,比使用行为科学结果或者心理生理学指标作为证据时更加让人信服,即使神经科学结果与该结论之间毫无关系,这种现象被称为神经科学偏见(neuroscience bias)。通过系统回顾近年来关于神经科学偏见的研究,我们发现:(1)虽然神经科学偏见存在可重复性的争论,但该效应确实存在;(2)神经科学偏见的产生可能是因为个体倾向于还原论的解释(即使用低层次、简单的机制来解释更高层次上的现象)及心理本质主义的影响(即人们认为心理与行为的本质是神经活动)。神经科学偏见反映了公众对科学结果解读的偏见,未来研究需要探讨这种偏见的心理机制,从而引导科学结果的正确解读和运用。

submitted time 2019-11-05 Cooperative journals:《心理科学进展》 Hits97936Downloads6418 Comment 0

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