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1. chinaXiv:202007.00044 [pdf]

A meta-analysis of the effect of episodic future thinking on delay discounting

Jun-yan Ye; Qing-yu Ding; Ji-fang Cui; Zhe Liu; Lu-xia Jia; Xiao-jing Qin; Hua Xu; Ya Wang
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

Delay discounting (DD) is the phenomenon that individuals prefer to choose an immediate but smaller reward than a delayed but larger reward. Larger DD is considered as an indicator of impulsivity, the increased DD rate is also seen as a behavior indictor of various psychiatric disorders. Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the ability to project oneself into the future to pre-experience the future events, which can be used to reduce DD. The present study provided a meta-analysis on the efficiency of EFT in reducing DD and examined potential moderators. Thirty-seven studies including 48 contrasts were included, results showed that EFT reduced DD significantly. Moderator and meta-regression analyses revealed that positive EFT was more efficient in reducing DD. In addition, several factors related to DD task (e.g., whether the DD money is hypothetical or potential real, whether the delay reward is fixed or variable, and the indexes of DD) were related to the efficiency of EFT in reducing DD. These results have implications for using EFT to reduce DD in the future.

submitted time 2020-07-27 Hits240Downloads142 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202007.00020 [pdf]

Heritability of justice sensitivity

Wang,Yun; Luo,Yu; Wu, Shengtao; Zhou, Yuan
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

Justice is one of fundamental principles in human evolution, and justice sensitivity, both from the proself perspective (e.g., as victim) and the prosocial perspective (e.g., as observer, beneficiary, and perpetrator), matters in mental wellness and social interaction. However, it remains unclear to what extent individual difference in justice sensitivity is influenced by genetic versus environmental factors. Using a sample with 244 twin pairs, the present research was an attempt to determine what extent genetic factor plays a role in the inter-individual difference of justice sensitivity as well as whether different facets of justice sensitivity, namely, proself and prosocial perspective, share common genetic basis. Results showed that (1) all the four facets of justice sensitivity were moderately heritable (21%–33%) and that the non-shared environmental factors accounted for the rest variations (67%–79%); (2) associations between the prosocial facets of justice sensitivity were driven by common genetics (rg: .50–.65) and non-shared environmental (re: .24–.65) influences, whereas no strong evidence supported a genetic correlation between proself and prosocial justice sensitivity. The current findings provide novel evidence that sensitivity to injustice, especially to others’ suffering, is fundamentally grounded upon genetic origin, thus shedding light on the nature and nurture aspects of justice behavior.

submitted time 2020-07-10 Hits3875Downloads713 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202002.00012 [pdf]

Horizontal but not vertical saccades enhance memory retrieval: a meta-analysis and systematic review

Qin, Xiao-jing; Yang, Han-xue ; Cui, Ji-fang ; Ye, Jun-yan ; Wang, Ya
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

BACKGROUND: Saccade-induced retrieval enhancement (SIRE) refers to the phenomenon that active engaging of horizontal eye movements before recall would enhance subsequent memory performance. This effect is generally thought to be the result of interhemispheric interaction stimulated by saccades. Nonetheless, recent findings do not fully support this hypothesis. An alternative explanation is that saccades promote memory retrieval by improving top-down attention control. Thus, the mechanisms of SIRE are unclear, the present meta-analysis quantitatively analyzed the effect of saccades on memory performance and examined the mechanisms of SIRE through moderator analysis. METHODS: We searched "Web of Science", "PubMed", and "Springer" for peer reviewed papers using the keywords "eye movements + memory" and "saccades + memory". Twenty-two papers were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: There was a significant facilitation of horizontal saccades on overall memory performance, with a pooled effect size (Cohen’s d) of 0.45 (p < 0.001). However, the overall effect of vertical saccades was not significant (d = 0.1, p = 0.14). Moderation analysis showed that the handedness of participants was a significant moderator of the SIRE, with strongly right-handed individuals benefited more from horizontal saccades than non-strongly right-handed individuals (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Horizontal saccades improved memory performances, particularly for the strongly right-handed individuals, these results support the interhemispheric interaction hypothesis.

submitted time 2020-02-05 Hits10618Downloads479 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202002.00010 [pdf]

A Meta-Analysis of Mental Time Travel Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Jun-yan Ye; Xiao-jing Qin; Ji-fang Cui; Lu-xia Jia; Ya Wang; Christos Pantelis; Raymond CK Chan
Subjects: Psychology >> Medical Psychology

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a wide range of cognitive impairments. Mental time travel (MTT) is the ability to mentally re-experience past events and pre-experience possible future events. Studies have shown MTT impairments in individuals with ASD, however, these findings may be confounded by a number of factors including verbal ability to report MTT, factors related to MTT task and demographic factors of participants. The present study provided a meta-analysis on MTT deficits in individuals with ASD and examined the potential moderating variables for these impairments. Twenty-six studies were included, and the participants comprised 667 individuals with ASD and 671 healthy controls. Results showed significant overall MTT impairments (Cohen’s d = ?0.95) in individuals with ASD. Moderator and meta-regression analyses revealed that verbal IQ was significantly related to MTT impairments; type of MTT, type of task, measurement indices of MTT, age of participants, gender ratio and full IQ did not explain the MTT impairments. These findings suggest that MTT is severely impaired in individuals with ASD, verbal IQ contributed to MTT impairments, and task characteristics did not affect the degree of impairments.

submitted time 2019-11-05 Hits8104Downloads444 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201909.00192 [pdf]

CAN4Age: Chinese affective norms for 4-character words rated by older and younger adults

Liu, Pingping; Lu, Qin; Zhang, Zhen; Han, Buxin
Subjects: Psychology >> Applied Psychology

Age-related differences in affective meanings of words are widely used by researchers studying emotions, word recognition, attention, memory and text -based sentiment analysis. However, no Chinese affective norms for older adults are available. This article firstly presents the available large-scale Chinese affective norms for 2, 061 4-character words rated in labs by 114 older and 150 younger adults (CAN4Age) who evaluated these words on four dimensions: valence, arousal, dominance, and familiarity. We also compiled 4 lexical variables for each word, including word frequency, word complexity, character frequency and character complexity. In general, older adults tend to evaluate emotional words more extremely than younger adults do. That is, they rate positive words as more positive and negative words as more negative than younger adults do. Specifically, older adults tend to perceive positive words as more arousing and less controllable and negative words as less arousing and more controllable than that of younger adults. This age-related database will enable researchers to study how emotional characteristics of words influence their cognitive processing, and how this influence evolves with age in Chinese. This age-related difference study on affective norms not only provides insights to cognitive neuroscience, gerontology and psychology in experimental studies, but the produced affective word collection also has great value as a resource for affective analysis in natural language processing applications. These norms can be downloaded as supplemental materials with this published article.

submitted time 2019-09-18 Hits9897Downloads500 Comment 0

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