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1. chinaXiv:202007.00044 [pdf]

A meta-analysis of the effect of episodic future thinking on delay discounting

Jun-yan Ye; Qing-yu Ding; Ji-fang Cui; Zhe Liu; Lu-xia Jia; Xiao-jing Qin; Hua Xu; Ya Wang
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

Delay discounting (DD) is the phenomenon that individuals prefer to choose an immediate but smaller reward than a delayed but larger reward. Larger DD is considered as an indicator of impulsivity, the increased DD rate is also seen as a behavior indictor of various psychiatric disorders. Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the ability to project oneself into the future to pre-experience the future events, which can be used to reduce DD. The present study provided a meta-analysis on the efficiency of EFT in reducing DD and examined potential moderators. Thirty-seven studies including 48 contrasts were included, results showed that EFT reduced DD significantly. Moderator and meta-regression analyses revealed that positive EFT was more efficient in reducing DD. In addition, several factors related to DD task (e.g., whether the DD money is hypothetical or potential real, whether the delay reward is fixed or variable, and the indexes of DD) were related to the efficiency of EFT in reducing DD. These results have implications for using EFT to reduce DD in the future.

submitted time 2020-07-27 Hits119Downloads62 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202007.00038 [pdf]

科学发明情境中问题提出的脑机制再探

童丹丹; 李文福; 禄鹏; 杨文静; 杨东; 张庆林; 邱江
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

以高生态学效度的科学发明问题情境作为实验材料,采用静息态功能磁共振成像技术,基于低频振幅(ALFF)和静息态功能连接(RSFC)的分析方法,探讨创造性科学问题提出的脑机制。结果发现,在控制了被试性别、年龄后,提出新颖有效性问题的比率越高,左内侧前额叶(Left media prefrontal cortex, L-mPFC)和右小脑前叶(Right cerebellum)的ALFF值越高。进一步功能连接分析发现,提出新颖有效性问题的比率与mPFC和楔叶(Cuneus)之间的功能连接强度呈显著正相关。结果强调mPFC对于科学发明情境中问题提出的重要作用, 且更高比率的新颖有效性问题的提出是通过mPFC与其它脑区的协同联结来实现的。

submitted time 2020-07-21 Hits227Downloads110 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202007.00018 [pdf]

人们为何好奇好奇心的机制和作用

黄骐; 陈春萍; 伍海燕
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

作为一种常见的心理状态和人格特质,好奇心是认知心理学研究领域中的重要主题。大脑多个脑区的分工和协同使得个体形成了产生、评估、触发、缓解以及重新产生对 于事物和环境的好奇心的认知过程,以减少对事物和环境预测误差与信息差距,消除对事 物的不确定性。好奇心在个体终生发展过程中,对促进认知功能,保持心理和身体健康有 积极的作用和意义。未来研究可以从跨物种、跨学科和多领域交叉的角度切入,推动好奇 心主题研究的深入、研究手段的发展以及研究成果的应用。

submitted time 2020-07-09 Hits3409Downloads292 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202007.00014 [pdf]

记忆的前测效应对老年人学习新事物的作用

Tangsheng,Wang; Chunliang,Yang; Nian,Zhong
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

为检验前置测试是否可以有效地提升老年人学习新事物的能力,参与实验的老年人被随机分为有前置测试的实验组和无前置测试的对照组,在实验1中学习了5列单词,在实验2中记忆了5列日用品,在实验3中学习了4段讲座视频。结果表明,实验组老年人对新事物的记忆成绩均高于对照组的老年人。结论认为,前置测试能够显著提升老年人学习新事物的能力,干扰降低与学习参与相结合的“加减”理论能更好地解释提升老年人记忆的前测效应。

submitted time 2020-07-04 Hits3435Downloads260 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202007.00003 [pdf]

未意识到错误影响错误后调整的电生理证据

王丽君; 索涛; 赵国祥
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

现有研究一致认为意识到错误可引起错误后调整,但是未意识到错误能否促使个体进行错误后调整尚存争议。本实验采用基于go/no-go范式的错误意识任务考察上述问题,并根据被试对自己按键反应正误主观报告将no-go错误反应分为意识到错误和未意识到错误。行为结果发现,意识到错误和未意识到错误后正确率均显著高于正确击中试次(正确go试次)后正确率;但是,意识到错误后试次反应时显著快于正确击中后反应时,未意识到错误后反应时显著慢于正确击中后反应时。该结果表明两类错误均优化了错误后行为表现,但是意识到错误后被试调整速度加快,未意识到错误后被试调整速度减慢。进而,时频分析发现意识到错误相较于未意识到错误诱发显著更强的alpha波能量。并且,前者在错误意识主观报告前已诱发alpha波,后者在错误意识主观报告反应后诱发alpha波。该结果表明意识到错误一直处于持续的注意监控中,而未意识到错误是任务引起的暂时注意控制。因此,本实验说明错误意识影响错误后调整,意识到错误可能采用类似主动性控制的策略调节错误后行为,而未意识到错误可能采用类似反应性控制的策略调节错误后行为。

submitted time 2020-07-01 Hits2842Downloads242 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202007.00002 [pdf]

Neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in self-awareness of highly practiced visuomotor skills

Junjun LI; Zhenglong Lin; Ran Tao; Min Xu; Shihong Kong; Hong-Yan Bi; Yang Yang
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

Metacognition refers to the ability to introspect our cognitive ability, which plays an essential role in guiding and optimizing our activities. However, little is known about metacognitive capacity for highly practiced motor behaviors and its neural correlates. Using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the present study examined the brain substrates underlying individual differences in self-awareness of handwriting in adults, a highly practiced visuomotor skill. Results showed that adult writers generally overestimate their handwriting skill, which is more pronounced in males relative to females. The extent of overestimation of handwriting quality was positively correlated with grey matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and right precuneus. Moreover, the activation of these regions in a handwriting task was not correlation with self-awareness of handwriting, confirming that the identified connection between brain structures and handwriting self-awareness is independent of task performances. The left fusiform gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus are thought to represent domain-specific brain mechanisms for handwriting self-awareness, while the right precuneus is likely to be a domain-general brain mechanism, suggesting that the ability of introspect practiced visuomotor skills relies on both domain-general and domain-specific brain systems. Together, this study is the first to reveal the neuroanatomical correlates of a highly practiced motor behavior, extending our understanding about the neural basis of human metacognition.

submitted time 2020-06-30 Hits2722Downloads203 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202006.00217 [pdf]

抑郁个体的视知觉加工异常

梅高兴; 仇式明; 陈仕语
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

抑郁作为一种神经心理障碍,一般表现为情绪失调,但研究表明,抑郁个体的视知觉加工也发生了改变。综述从视觉客体特征(如对比度敏感性)和常用视觉任务范式(如双眼竞争)两个视角,评述了有关抑郁个体在视知觉加工方面的特点。这些研究总体上反映了抑郁个体在视知觉加工的不同层级水平上均受到了损害。未来的研究可以在区分不同抑郁亚型的基础上,尝试使用视知觉加工任务的指标作为区分抑郁个体和非抑郁个体的客观诊断手段。

submitted time 2020-06-22 Hits3597Downloads372 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202006.00172 [pdf]

Reconfiguration of functional brain networks underlying the distinctions between automatic and controlled handwriting

Junjun LI; Lei HONG; Hong-yang BI; Yang YANG
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

This study aimed to examine the brain mechanisms underlying the distinctions between automatic and controlled handwriting. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected while adult participants (n = 53) performed a copying task with varying speed control demands. Network analysis showed significant differences in functional connectivity within and between the frontoparietal network (FPN), the default mode network (DMN), the dorsal attention network (DAN), the somatomotor network (SMN) and the visual network (VN) between automatic and speed-controlled handwriting irrespective of written materials, which are thought to reflect general executive control and task-relevant visuomotor operations. However, there were no differences in brain activation between automatic and controlled handwriting. These results suggest that reconfiguration of functional network architecture, rather than regional activation, underlies the dissociations between automatic and controlled handwriting. Our findings shed new light on the neural mechanisms of handwriting mastery and handwriting impairments in individuals with neurological disorders.

submitted time 2020-06-17 Hits2954Downloads285 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202006.00119 [pdf]

theta频段反映了音节编码过程

蒋宇宸; 蔡笑; 张清芳
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

大脑的神经振荡往往反映了人类的各种认知活动。语言理解的研究发现大脑θ频段的活动与音节的加工密切相关,但目前尚未有研究者探究语言产生过程中大脑特定频段活动与音节加工的联系。我们通过EEG时频分析技术,采用掩蔽启动范式,考察了23名健康被试在图片命名过程中θ频段的活动与音节加工过程的关系。行为结果发现,当启动词和目标图名称之间存在音节相关时,个体的命名反应时快于音节无关的条件,而音素相关条件的命名反应时慢于音素无关条件。时频结果发现,在刺激出现后的270~460 ms,音节相关条件下个体θ频段神经振荡的能量显著低于音节无关条件,音素相关与音素无关之间无显著差异。综上,我们认为汉语口语产生中大脑θ频段的活动反映了对音节的加工,从神经振荡指标上为音节是汉语口语词汇产生中音韵编码的单元提供了证据。

submitted time 2020-06-16 Hits648Downloads360 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202006.00088 [pdf]

编码强度对字体大小效应的影响

赵文博; 姜英杰; 王志伟; 胡竞元
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

本研究采用三个实验考察编码强度对字体大小效应的影响,探讨由于知觉特征而引发的元认知错觉的内在产生机制(实验1)与有效的矫正措施(实验2和实验3)。结果发现:(1)大字体词语的知觉流畅性显著优于小字体,并且贝叶斯多层中介分析结果表明,知觉流畅性对字体大小效应起部分中介作用(实验1); (2)随着编码强度的增加,由字体大小引起的学习判断错觉逐渐消失(实验2和实验3)。以上结果表明,刺激的知觉特征(字体大小)对个体学习判断的影响,随编码强度激活线索的增加而逐渐减弱。这一结果为真实教学情境中提高学习者的编码强度,进而削弱学习判断对知觉特征线索的依赖,并准确地监测自身的学习进程提供了科学依据。

submitted time 2020-06-12 Hits579Downloads323 Comment 0

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