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1. chinaXiv:201712.02153 [pdf]

大尺度脑网络交互支持内外部指向的认知

辛斐; 谢超 ; 雷旭
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

大量神经成像研究表明,人脑的高级认知功能不是由单个脑区负责的,而是通过多个与认知活动相关的脑区构成的特异性脑网络的协同活动来实现的。其中,额顶控制网络动态调控默认网络和背侧注意网络之间的信息交互,受到了很多研究者的关注。背侧注意网络主要负责外部自上而下的注意导向、视觉空间知觉等功能,默认网络主要负责内部注意指向的和自我参照的认知加工。根据当前任务对个体注意指向的要求,额顶控制网络灵活地选择与默认网络或背侧注意网络耦合或解耦合,从而更高效地分配注意资源。目前,在三个大尺度脑网络的脑区分布、功能分工和交互关系上仍存在争议有待进一步揭示。未来研究需要对三个脑网络进行更精确的功能定义,进一步探索网络内部各个亚网络的功能角色,同时借助效应连接的手段考察网络内部和网络间信息传递的方向性和动态性,从而更深入理解默认网络、背侧注意网络和额顶控制网络在内外部注意指向的认知活动中信息交互的神经机制。

submitted time 2017-12-29 Hits6681Downloads2128 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201711.00276 [pdf]

DPABI: Data Processing & Analysis for (Resting-State) Brain Imaging

Chao-Gan Yan; Xin-Di Wang; Xi-Nian Zuo; Yu-Feng Zang
Subjects: Psychology >> Applied Psychology

Brain imaging efforts are being increasingly devoted to decode the functioning of the human brain. Among neuroimaging techniques, resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) is currently expanding exponentially. Beyond the general neuroimaging analysis packages (e.g., SPM, AFNI and FSL), REST and DPARSF were developed to meet the increasing need of user-friendly toolboxes for R-fMRI data processing. To address recently identified methodological challenges of R-fMRI, we introduce the newly developed toolbox, DPABI, which was evolved from REST and DPARSF. DPABI incorporates recent research advances on head motion control and measurement standardization, thus allowing users to evaluate results using stringent control strategies. DPABI also emphasizes test-retest reliability and quality control of data processing. Furthermore, DPABI provides a user-friendly pipeline analysis toolkit for rat/monkey R-fMRI data analysis to reflect the rapid advances in animal imaging. In addition, DPABI includes preprocessing modules for task-based fMRI, voxel-based morphometry analysis, statistical analysis and results viewing. DPABI is designed to make data analysis require fewer manual operations, be less time-consuming, have a lower skill requirement, a smaller risk of inadvertent mistakes, and be more comparable across studies. We anticipate this open-source toolbox will assist novices and expert users alike and continue to support advancing R-fMRI methodology and its application to clinical translational studies.

submitted time 2017-11-06 Hits7985Downloads2225 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201711.00277 [pdf]

Linear trend of resting-state fMRI time series

Xin-Di Wang; Chao-Gan Yan; Yu-Feng Zang
Subjects: Psychology >> Applied Psychology

Although爈inear trend removing has often been implemented as a routine preprocessing step in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data analysis, the爏patial distribution爋f the magnitude of linear trend is still unclear. Further, it is interesting whether there will be any difference of the linear trend magnitude between different resting-states. For the first aim, we analyzed 5 RS-fMRI datasets from 5 different scanners (namely Beijing-Simens-3T, Cambridge-Siemens-3T, CCBD-GE750-3T, Milwaukee-GE-3T, and Oulu-GE-1.5T). One-sample t-tests on the regression coefficient (i.e., the magnitude of linear trend) were performed for each datasets. For the second aim, we used 2 datasets in each of which different states were compared, one containing eyes-open resting-state (EO-RS) vs. eyes-closed resting-state (EC-RS) and the other containing two steady-state tasks, i.e.,爎eal-time finger force feedback?RT-FFF) and sham finger force feedback (S-FFF) tasks. Paired t-tests were performed between EO-RS and EC-RS, and between RT-FFF and S-FFF. One-sample t-tests showed that the spatial pattern of linear trend of RS-fMRI time series were quite different between different manufactures. The 3T SIEMENS scanners showed positive linear trend in almost all part of the brain, while GE scanners showed primarily negative linear trend in most part of the brain. Paired t-tests showed some differences between paired conditions; differences between EO-RS and EC-RS were mainly in cuneus and eyeballs, and differences between RT-FFF and S-FFF were found in the thalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and right sensorimotor cortex. The current study indicated that, while the manufacturer-dependent linear trend of RS-fMRI time series were mostly scanner-related noise, the linear trend may also be physiological noise (eyeballs) or even physiologically meaningful, especially during steady-state tasks.

submitted time 2017-11-06 Hits5915Downloads1238 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201711.00278 [pdf]

PRN: a preprint service for catalyzing R-fMRI and neuroscience related studies

Chao-Ganyan; Qingyang Li; Lei Gao
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

Sharing drafts of scientific manuscripts on preprint hosting services for early exposure and pre-publication feedback is a well-accepted practice in fields such as physics, astronomy, or mathematics. The field of neuroscience, however, has yet to adopt the preprint model. A reason for this reluctance might partly be the lack of central preprint services for the field of neuroscience. To address this issue, we announce the launch of Preprints of the R-fMRI Network (PRN), a community funded preprint hosting service. PRN provides free-submission and free hosting of manuscripts for resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) and neuroscience related studies. Submissions will be peer viewed and receive feedback from readers and a panel of invited consultants of the R-fMRI Network. All manuscripts and feedback will be freely available online with citable permanent URL for open-access. The goal of PRN is to supplement the “peer reviewed” journal publication system – by more rapidly communicating the latest research achievements throughout the world. We hope PRN will help the field to embrace the preprint model and thus further accelerate R-fMRI and neuroscience related studies, eventually enhancing human mental health.

submitted time 2017-11-06 Hits4357Downloads1437 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201711.00275 [pdf]

Reliability of sleep deprivation-associated spontaneous brain activity and behavior

Lei Gao; Lijun Bai; Yuchen Zhang; Xi-jian Dai; Rana Netra; Youjiang Min; Fuqing燴hou; Honghan Gong; Ming Zhang; Yijun Liu
Subjects: Psychology >> Applied Psychology

Recent studies have indicated that sleep deprivation (SD) alters intrinsic low-frequency connectivity in the resting brain, mainly focusing on the default mode network (DMN) and its anticorrelated network (ACN). These networks hold key functions in segregating internally and externally directed awareness. However, far less attention has been paid to investigation of the altered amplitude of these low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) at the whole-brain level and more importantly by what extent the sleep-deprived resting brain pattern can be reproducible and predict individual behavioral performance. The aim of this study was to characterize more clearly the influence of sleep on the whole brain level of ALFF changes and its relation with the performance of a lexical decision task in the sleep deprivation. Sixteen healthy participants underwent fMRI three times: once after a normal night of sleep in the rested wakefulness (RW) state and two following approximately 24 h of total SD separated by an interval of two weeks (SD1 and SD2). Our behavioral results showed that sleep stabilizes performance whereas two sleep deprivation even at an interval of two weeks consistently deteriorates it. Sleep deprivation attenuated the ALFF mainly in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and right inferior parietal lobule (IPL). By contrast, the enhanced ALFF emerged in the left sensorimotor cortex (SMA), visual cortex and left fusiform gyrus. Conjunction analysis of SD1 and SD2 versus the control maps and voxel-wise ICC analysis revealed that these SD induced ALFF changes showed a significantly high reliability (ICC>0.5). Particularly, the attenuation of the right IPL presents a significant negative relation with the behavior performance and can be reproducible for two SD at an interval of two weeks. Our results suggest that ALFF is a stable measure in study of SD, and the right IPL may represent a stable biomarker that responds to sleep loss.

submitted time 2017-11-06 Hits6369Downloads1335 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201711.00274 [pdf]

Concordance Among Indices of Intrinsic Brain Function:Inter-Individual Variation and Temporal Dynamics Perspectives

Chao-Gan Yan; Zhen Yang; Stanley J. Colcombe; Xi-Nian Zuo; Michael P. Milham
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

Various resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) measures have been developed to characterize intrinsic brain activity. While each of these measures has gained a growing presence in the literature, questions remain regarding the common and unique aspects these indices capture. The present work provided a comprehensive examination of inter-individual variation and intra-individual temporal variation for commonly used measures, including fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations, regional homogeneity, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity, network centrality and global signal correlation. Regardless of whether examining intra-individual or inter-individual variation, we found that these definitionally distinct R-fMRI indices tend to exhibit a relatively high degree of covariation. When taken as a measure of intrinsic brain function, inter-individual differences in concordance for R-fMRI indices appeared to be stable, and negatively related to age (i.e., functional concordance among indices decreases with age). To understand the functional significance of concordance, we noted that higher concordance was generally associated with higher strengths of R-fMRI indices, regardless of whether looking through the lens of inter-individual (i.e., high vs. low concordance participants) or intra-individual (i.e., high vs. low concordance states identified via temporal dynamic analyses) differences. Finally, temporal dynamics analyses also revealed that high concordance states are characterized by increased within- and between-network functional connectivity, suggesting more general variations in network integration and segregation. The current study draws attention to questions regarding how to select an R-fMRI index for usage in a given study, as well as how to compare findings across studies that examine inter-individual or group differences using different indices. Additionally, our work suggests global neural signals exist in the brain, and their spontaneous variations over time result in fluctuations in the connectedness of brain regions.

submitted time 2017-11-06 Hits4485Downloads1357 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201710.00010 [pdf]

Chinese Color Nest Project (CCNP)i: Growing Up in China

Ning Yang; Ye He; Zhe Zhang; Hao-Ming Dong; Lei Zhang; Xing-Ting Zhu; Xiao-Hui Hou; Yin-Shan Wang; Quan Zhou; Zhu-QingGong; Li-Zhi Cao; Ping Wang; Yi-Wen Zhang; Dan-Yang Sui; TingXu1; Gao-Xia Wei; Zhi Yang; Lili Jiang; Hui-Jie Li; Ting-YongFeng
Subjects: Psychology >> Experimental Psychology

Abstract: To face the challenges of keeping healthy in increasing population sizes of both ageing and developing people in China, a fundamental request from the public health is the development of lifespan normative trajectories of brain and behavior. This paper introduces the Chinese Color Nest Project (CCNP 2013–2022), a large-scale tenyear program of modeling brain and behavioral trajectories for human lifespan (6–85 years old). We plan to gradually collect the behavioral and brain imaging data at ages across the lifespan on nationwide and depict the normal trajectory of Chinese brain development across the lifespan, based on the accelerated longitudinal design in the coming next 10 years starting at 2013. Various psychiatric disorders have been demonstrated highly relevant to abnormal events during the neurodevelopment regarding their onset ages of first episodes. Therefore, delineation of normative growth curves of brain and cognition in typically developing children is extremely useful for monitoring, early detecting and intervention of various neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we detailed the developing part of CCNP, devCCNP. It tracked 192 healthy children and adolescents (6–18 years old) in Beibei district of Chongqing for the first 5 years of the full CCNP cohort (2013–2017). To demonstrate the feasibility of implementing the longterm follow-up of CCNP, we here comprehensively document devCCNP in terms of its experimental design, sample strategies, data acquisition and storage as well as some preliminary results and data sharing roadmap for future. Specifically, we first describe the accelerated longitudinal sampling design as well as its exact ratio of sample dropping off during the data collection. Second, we present several initial findings such as canonical growth curves of cortical surface areas of a set of well-established large-scale functional networks of the human brain. Finally, together with records generated by many psychological and behavioral tests, we will provide an individual growing-up report for each family participating the program, initiating the potential guidance on the individual academic and social development. The resources introduced in the current work can provide first-hand data for a series of coming Chinese brain development studies, such as Chinese Standard MRI Brain Templates, Normative Growth Curves of Chinese Brain and Cognition as well as Mapping of Language Areas in Chinese Developing Brain. These would not only offer normative references of the atypical brain and cognition development for Chinese population but also serve as a strong force on accelerating the pace of integrating Chinese brain development into the national brain program or Chinese Brain Project.

submitted time 2017-10-13 Hits5089Downloads1543 Comment 0

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