摘要：第三方惩罚(third-party punishment, TPP)指个体作为第三方或者观察者为维护社会规范对违规者所实施的惩罚行为。大量研究为揭示TPP行为的神经机制提供了启示，但鲜有研究关注不同功能性脑网络在其中发挥的整体作用。本文综述了近十年来TPP相关的研究，对相关理论模型和脑网络进行总结，并在此基础上提出TPP的认知神经网络模型，系统地对TPP行为背后的神经机制进行解释和整合。在该模型中，情绪系统和奖赏系统是TPP的动力来源，认知系统主要负责责任评估以及惩罚的选择；奖赏网络、突显网络、默认模式网络和中央执行网络分别参与不同认知加工阶段。该模型建立了TPP相关研究在心理层面和认知神经层面上的联系，对TPP行为的发生和发展机制进行了更加整体、全面的解释。未来可以引入元分析或基于机器学习的分析方法，在不同的背景信息和更加复杂的社交情境下探讨第三方干预偏好以及背后的认知神经机制。
摘要：Background: While psychosocial stressors trigger neuroendocrine responses and affect task performance, many studies overlook the dynamic nature of the stress appraisal process. Goal: This study aims to explore whether subjective appraisals at various time points can interpret individual stress responses, both behaviorally and physiologically, using controlled laboratory conditions. Methods: A total of 137 effective participants were recruited to induce individual stress states using the Trier Social stress Test (TSST). Subjective appraisals were measured both before (anticipatory appraisal) and after the stressor (retrospective appraisal). Concurrently, participants' cortisol responses and task performances were documented. Results: Findings indicate that anticipatory appraisal doesn't significantly impact task performance, whereas retrospective appraisal markedly affects performance of the corresponding tasks. Regarding cortisol levels, multivariate regression analysis revealed that only the retrospective appraisal of the speech task accounted for the observed variance in cortisol response under stress. Discussion: The data suggests that retrospective appraisals are more indicative of behavioral and physiological responses to psychosocial stressors than anticipatory appraisals. These findings lend empirical support to refining the biopsychosocial model and underscore the utility of retrospective appraisal in capturing individual stress response variations.