• The transition to compulsion in addiction:insights from personality traits, social factors, and neurobiology

    分类: 心理学 >> 医学心理学 分类: 心理学 >> 生理心理学 提交时间: 2024-05-20

    摘要: Compulsion stands as a central symptom of drug addiction; however, only a small fraction of drug users exhibit compulsive characteristics. Differences observed in Sign-trackers (ST) and Goal-trackers (GT) during Pavlovian conditioning may shed light on individual variances in drug addiction. Here, we focus on the behavioral attributes, formation processes, and neural mechanisms underlying ST and how they drive addiction towards compulsivity in humans. We will explore addiction from three interconnected levels: individual personality traits, social factors, and neurobiology. Furthermore, we distinguish between the processes of sensitization and habituation within ST. These nuanced distinctions across various aspects of addiction will contribute to our understanding of the addiction development process and the formulation of targeted preventive strategies.

  • Neuroanatomical correlates of individual differences in self-awareness of highly practiced visuomotor skills

    分类: 心理学 >> 认知心理学 提交时间: 2020-06-30

    摘要: Metacognition refers to the ability to introspect our cognitive ability, which plays an essential role in guiding and optimizing our activities. However, little is known about metacognitive capacity for highly practiced motor behaviors and its neural correlates. Using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the present study examined the brain substrates underlying individual differences in self-awareness of handwriting in adults, a highly practiced visuomotor skill. Results showed that adult writers generally overestimate their handwriting skill, which is more pronounced in males relative to females. The extent of overestimation of handwriting quality was positively correlated with grey matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and right precuneus. Moreover, the activation of these regions in a handwriting task was not correlation with self-awareness of handwriting, confirming that the identified connection between brain structures and handwriting self-awareness is independent of task performances. The left fusiform gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus are thought to represent domain-specific brain mechanisms for handwriting self-awareness, while the right precuneus is likely to be a domain-general brain mechanism, suggesting that the ability of introspect practiced visuomotor skills relies on both domain-general and domain-specific brain systems. Together, this study is the first to reveal the neuroanatomical correlates of a highly practiced motor behavior, extending our understanding about the neural basis of human metacognition.

  • 运营单位: 中国科学院文献情报中心
  • 制作维护:中国科学院文献情报中心知识系统部
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